Clinical trials

Clinical trials are research studies conducted with human participants to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of new medical interventions, such as drugs, treatments, vaccines, medical devices, or diagnostic procedures. These trials are designed to generate data that can support regulatory approval and guide medical decision-making.


Clinical trials typically follow a structured protocol that outlines the objectives, study design, eligibility criteria for participants, treatment procedures, and outcome measures. They are conducted in different phases, each serving a specific purpose:

Phase 1: These trials involve a small number of healthy volunteers to assess the safety, dosage, and potential side effects of a new intervention. The primary goal is to determine the treatment's tolerability and pharmacokinetics (how the body processes the intervention).

Phase 2: These trials enroll a larger group of patients who have the target condition or disease. The focus is on evaluating the intervention's effectiveness, optimal dosage, and further assessing its safety. These trials may also explore different treatment regimens or variations in patient populations.

Phase 3: These trials involve a larger sample size and are designed to compare the new intervention against the standard of care or existing treatments. The goal is to gather robust evidence regarding the intervention's efficacy, safety, and potential benefits or risks. Phase 3 trials provide critical data for regulatory approval and inform clinical practice.

Phase 4: Also known as post-marketing surveillance or observational studies, these trials are conducted after regulatory approval to monitor the intervention's long-term safety and effectiveness in larger populations. They provide additional insights into the intervention's real-world performance and help identify rare side effects or interactions.


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